For one thing, the monastery of San Miguel de los Reyes was meant to become a mausoleum for his dynasty. Fernando also made —but never managed to fulfill— plans to move the sepulchers of his parents and sib- lings to the Hyeronimite monastery. In his pref- atory epistle ca. And as I was laboring to understand their most difficult parts, and was reading many times the passages I had doubts about, I was able to take a good look at his verses, and was persuaded to translate them in their own style into the Castilian language.
Homiliario, f. I kiss the most serene hands of Your Excellency. In fact, the Catalan text that accompanies the translation was never republished during the sixteenth century. Two questions arise. To what extent would the texts published by Navarro do justice to such claim? How did he elaborate his text, and what is the relationship between the original text and the translation that stems from those translation poetics?
And MS D show traces of compilatory work, see below Chapter 5. All poems included in the anthology were written in this meter. Lo que no es nada en mi es lo mejor. Quando le matan siente el morir doblado. Pide veneno no selo contradize. Y hauer pesar rebuelto con deleyte. Y en su querer lalma su firma pone. By virtue of the phonic, morpho- logical, grammatical, and lexical similarities between Spanish and Catalan, to a certain extent those two principles hinge on each other.
Translating from Catalan into Spanish, in spite of all the linguistic affin- ities between both languages, implies the substitution of a linguistic system with another one.
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Both sign systems are and were analogical in many respects, but were and are also intrinsically different. Let us analyze, for example, the first stanza of the second poem in the anthology: Prenmen axi como al patro que en plaja Como el patron quen playa sin reparo Te sa gran nau e pensa hauer castell Piensa su nau ser muy firme castillo Uehent lo sol esser molt clar e bell Y que vn cabo le bastara senzillo Creu fermament dun ancora sats haja: Pues vido el cielo estar sereno y claro: E sent venir soptos un temporal Si de improuiso se mueue vn temporal De tempestat he temps incomportable De mar crecida y viento incomportable Lleua juhi que si es molt durable Haze juyzio que si es muy durable Sercar los ports mes que aturar li val.
Buscar los puertos le sera menos mal. Fairly long sequences replicate the original word by word in lines 1, 2, 3 and 4, but note that the two latter were switched around for the sake of rhyme-keeping. The formal struc- ture of such literal translation could not simply and perfectly mirror the orig- inal. The above-mentioned imperfect dodecasyllabism of the Spanish verses is another of the unavoidable flaws of the replica.
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Considering the high formal standards that the translator set for his labor, as well as the intrinsic formal differences between Catalan and Spanish, the Catalan text naturally resisted being literally and metrically translated into Spanish through mere replacement of every word with a cognate. Poem 2, v. The recursive translation strategy appears earlier in the verse.
The same issue is apparent in the following lines: Lo sobresalt que de vos donam ve Un sobresalto que no quiere dexarme Poem 34, v. Some of the verses analyzed above even feature the aforemen- tioned strategies for balancing meter and literalness. In the original quatrain, March boasts of his moral qualities as a lover and asserts his skill in detaching virtuous desires from those that are not so: Car yo tot sol desampare la mescla De llegs desigs que ab los bons sembolquen Castich nom cal puix que aquests nom tentem La causa llur en mi es feta nulle.
In the first two lines of the second quatrain vv.
Poem 2, vv. Estos effectos son de causa tan alta Que han hecho amigos dos contrarios teribles Al parecer no son cosas possibles Amor las haze y en mi no tienen falta. In Poem 13, March consid- ers that his sorrows are as deep as the pain suffered by the souls of those con- demned to hell vv. In the first half of the fourth stanza vv. Y lo que digo con obras prouare. Poem 46, vv. The first three stanzas vv. In the second half he describes his condition with a simile: Fora millor ma dolor soferir Que no mesclar poca part de plaher Entre aquells mals quem giten de saber Com de plaher passat me conue exir: Llanc13 mon delit dolor se conuerteix Dobles lafany apres dun poch repos Si col malalt que per vn plahent mos Tot son menjar en dolor se nodreix.
Similarly, an extreme hope- less situation comes up in the last verse of the second half of the stanza: E fiu de vos quem sabreu be conexer Mucho confio que sabreys conocerme E conegud nom sera mal grayda Y es impossible que siendo conocido Tota dolor hauent per vos sentida Loque yo sufro no sea agradescido Lladonchs veureu les flames damor creixer. Mas en tal grado no pienso jamas verme. The annominatio, for one, is a rhetorical device con- sisting in the usage of a lexical root under a variety of phonic changes, within a short range of verses.
Annominatio encompasses figures based on morphological variation of either word endings poliptoton or word stems etymological figure , and also the derivation of a given root derivatio. Of note is the pervasive use of same-root words within on single stanza: Plagues a deu que mon pensar for mort Pluguiesse a dios que mi pensar muriesse E que passas ma vida en durment O que mi vida se passasse durmiendo Malament viu qui te son pensament Que no es biuir el que biue sintiendo Per enemich fentli de mals ha port: Dentro de si quien su despecho crece: Poem 1, vv.
No hauria frenos que aquella refrenassen. Poem 87, vv. Poem 23, vv. Poem 34, vv. Por ver si muerto hos podre contentar. Poem 13, vv. Textual forms and poetical discourses assimilated by the translator shape his text when he departs from literalness.
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Three specific cases will be examined. Each part represents the two opposing desires that have assailed the poetic voice. Reason wins the argument. The poetic voice implies a resolution of his inner conflict, as the purity of his desire for his beloved becomes apparent.
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O amadors rebeu asso enlo si O amadores quel mal teneys por bien Los que jouent vol que sia cubert Oyd oyd y hazed que se hos acuerde Delit damor en lome tot se pert Todo deleyte damor ellombre pierde Si vol saber com ama ne aqui: Si saber quiere como ama ni a quien: Poem , vv. These two words perfectly constitute the required first four syllables. Poem 1, vv.
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By impersonating the Marchian voice, these echoes do not convey the original sense, but they do fulfill the metrical demands of the translation. These ending couplets enjoy a degree of syntactical and semantic indepen- dence within the stanza.
Being cohesive and quite autonomous, these pairs of verses need to be fully rephrased whenever the usual replacement methods cannot be applied. Rephrasing can lead to vulgarized free variation, such as the one commented above Poem 92, vv.
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In Poem 87, for example, after devoting eight verses vv. March concludes the stanza in dealing with the third one, which he describes but does not identify: Aquest te ferm y als altres fa que tinguen25 De tres quereres quando falta el honesto Eser nols fa mas te quen bax no vingen Los dos no duran antes quiebran de presto26 vv. The fourth stanza of Poem 2 vv. Si mon voler hedad mal ha pareixer Si lo que os quiero os mostre mal y tarde Creu de sert que ha vera amor nom lluny No es ya menos poresto mi querer Puix que lo sol es calt al mes de Juny Mas enla cumbre esta mi merescer Hart mon cor flach sens algun grat mereixer: Comosta el sol al tiempo que mas arde: Poem 2, vv.
He starts v. The first hemistiches correspond, word for word, to the original, whereas the second halves of both verses, which contain the rhyming words, are rephrased: Si Job lo just por de deu lo premia Si el justo Job a dios temia tanto Que fare yo que dins les colpes nade. Que hare yo enla mar de mis culpas. The operation has relied on formal simi- larities between Catalan and Spanish as linguistic systems; it has also resorted to an abundance of blank versos estramps in the poems translated. In consequence, the translator has had to design systematic strategies in order to balance literalness with meter.
Ravasini would easily beffit this poetic culture. Contemporary moralist authors considered lyric poetry to be a vain if not dangerous kind of literature. In fact, many extant copies of the Cancionero general appear expurgated and customized by individual read- ers. Censorship, performed by translators themselves, had not been rare before the Inquisition, and was not uncommon even among human- ist translators from the fifteenth century onwards.